NOTABLE DEATHS IN 2013
Compiled by USA Today
This year’s Passages, USA TODAY’s annual roundup of notable people we lost in 2013, is a rich and often unexpected series of encounters.
PASSAGES 2013: How we remember them
Below, we remember the accomplishments of those who left us this year.
Herbert M. Allison Jr., 69, former president of Merrill Lynch who was appointed to lead and help rescue troubled Fannie Mae in 2008 and who later ran the federal government’s bank bailout program. Allison was a political appointee of both President Obama and President George W. Bush. Allison took over Fannie Mae after retiring as chief executive of TIAA-CREF, the giant financial services company. Heart attack, July 14.
Amar G. Bose, 83, visionary engineer, inventor and billionaire entrepreneur whose namesake company, the Bose Corp., became synonymous with high-quality audio systems and speakers. As founder and chairman of the privately held company, Bose focused relentlessly on acoustic engineering innovation. His speakers, though expensive, earned a reputation for bringing concert-hall-quality audio into the home. And by refusing to offer stock to the public, Dr. Bose was able to pursue risky long-term research, such as noise-canceling headphones and an innovative suspension system for cars, without the pressures of quarterly earnings announcements.Cause not given, July 12.
Roy Brown Jr., 96, defiantly proud designer of the Ford Edsel, the chrome-encrusted, big-grilled set of wheels that was one of the worst flops in automotive history. More than five decades after Brown’s creation debuted then disappeared, the term “Edsel” remains practically synonymous with failure. Pneumonia, Feb. 24.
Alex Calderwood, 47, co-founder of the hip Ace Hotel chain. No cause given, Nov. 14.
Philip Caldwell, 93, first chief executive officer of Ford Motor Co. who wasn’t a member of the founder’s family. He gambled the automaker’s future on the Taurus sedan in the 1980s. It became the best-selling car in the USA. Stroke, July 10.
A.W. “Tom” Clausen, 89, who led San Francisco-based Bank of America both before and after a five-year (1981-86) term as president of the World Bank. At both banks he focused attenton on the needs of developing countries. He was credited with reviving Bank of America during his second term at the helm. Complications from Pneumonia, Jan. 21.
Ronald Coase, 102, oldest living Nobel Prize winner who was a pioneer in applying economic theory to the law. The British-born economist won the Nobel in 1991 for expanding economic theory to include simple but neglected concepts such as property rights and overhead costs.The former University of Chicago professor was the oldest living Nobel laureate before his death. Short illness, Sept. 2.
Douglas Dayton, 88, former executive of Minneapolis-based Dayton’s department stores who in remaking his family’s company into a discount business helped reinvent American retailing when he launched Target Stores in 1962. Minneapolis-based Target is now No. 36 on the Fortune 500. Cancer, July 5.
Ray Dolby, 80, American inventor and audio technology pioneer who founded Dolby Laboratories. His work in noise reduction and surround sound led to the creation of a number of technologies that are still used in music, movies and entertainment today. Dolby held 50 U.S. patents and won a number of notable awards for his life’s work, including several Emmys, two Oscars and a Grammy.He was awarded the National Medal of Technology from President Bill Clinton and was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in the U.S. and the Royal Academy of Engineers in the U.K Alzheimer’s disease, Sept. 12.
Robert W. Fogel, 86,University of Chicago economist and Nobel Prize winner whose study of the economics of slavery sparked a furious debate in academia. His work on slavery and on the impact of railroads in the 19th Century helped earn him a Nobel prize. Brief illness, June 10.
Robert Earl Holding, 86, billionaire whose business empire included ownership of Sinclair Oil and Sun Valley Resort in Idaho and Snowbasin Resort in Utah. Cause not given, April 18.
Wojciech Inglot, 57, Polish chemist and businessman who founded and ran a cosmetics company, Inglot, that grew into an international success with nearly 400 stores in 50 countries. Recently Inglot found unexpected success with a breathable nail polish that became a surprise hit with Muslim women. Internal hemorrhaging, Feb. 23.
Lawrence R. Klein, 93, longtime University of Pennsylvania professor who won the Nobel Prize in economics. In 1946 Klein correctly predicted that pent-up demand for consumer goods combined with the purchasing power of returning soldiers would ward off a depression. At Penn He developed the so-called “Wharton Models,” statistical models which led to his Nobel Prize. Cause not given, Oct. 20.
Harry Lewis, 93, founder in the 1950s of the Hamburger Hamlet chain. The restaurants were decorated with movie memorabilia and offered customized hamburgers long before the idea became trendy. Cause not given, June 8.
William C. Lowe, 72, who in 1980 promoted the bold idea that IBM should develop a personal computer that could be mass marketed, expanding the company’s reach beyond businesses and into people’s homes. He also was credited with fostering collaboration within the computer industry. Heart attack, Oct. 18.
Paul C. McIlhenny, 68, chief executive and chairman of the board of the McIlhenny Company that makes the trademarked line of Tabasco hot pepper sauces and other products. Cause not given, Feb. 23.
Bob Meistrell, 84, who began making wet suits for surfers and scuba divers in the early 1950s and with his twin brother, Bill, founded Body Glove, one of the world’s largest wet-suit companies. Heart attack, June 16.
George P. Mitchell, 94, developer and philanthropist who is considered the father of fracking, a process of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing of gas-laden rock. The process brought an entirely new — and enormous — trove of oil and gas within reach. Environmentalists have attacked the practice over concerns about air and water pollution. No cause given, July 26.
Marc Rich, 78, trader known as the “King of Commodities” whose controversial 2001 pardon by President Clinton just hours before he left office unleashed a political firestorm of criticism. Rich, who was on the FBI’s most Wanted List, fled to Switzerland in 1983 after he was indicted by a U.S. federal grand jury on more than 50 counts of fraud, racketeering, trading with Iran during the U.S. Embassy hostage crisis and evading more than $48 million in income taxes. Stroke, June 26.
Muriel “Mickie” Siebert, 84, who in December 1967 became the first woman to have a seat on the New York Stock Exchange after months of struggling with the male-dominated business world that resisted her efforts to join. In 1977 she was appointed the first woman superintendent of banking for the State of New York, serving five years. She established her investment firm, Muriel Siebert & Co. Inc., the same year and transformed it into a discount brokerage house in 1975. Cancer, Aug. 24.
James Strong, 68,former chief executive officer of Australia’s biggest carrier, Qantas Airways, and former chairman of the country’s largest retailer, Woolworths. Complications following surgery, March 2.
Robert R. Taylor, 77, entrepreneur who took soap out of dishes and put it in pump bottles as . His SoftSoap forever changed the way people wash up. Taylor created and sold more than a dozen businesses during his lifetime, including those that produced toothpaste, shampoos and popular fragrances, such as Calvin Klein’s Obsession. Cancer, Aug. 29.
Eiji Toyoda, 100, a member of Toyota’s founding family who helped create the super-efficient “Toyota Way” production method. He served as company president from 1967 to 1982, engineering Toyota’s growth into a global automaker. He became chairman in 1982, and continued in advisory positions up to his death.Heart failure, Sept. 17.
Cal Worthington, 92, West Coast auto salesman known for his zany commercials. He was the nation’s top-selling Dodge salesman in the 1960s and at one time he owned nearly two dozen car dealerships, stretching from Alaska to Texas. Cause not given, Sept. 8.
Hiroshi Yamauchi, 85, who ran Nintendo from 1949 to 2002 and led the Japanese company’s transition from a maker of playing cards to a video game giant. He also was known for owned the Seattle Mariners major league baseball club. Pneumonia, Sept. 19.
Sidney Berry, 87, retired Army lieutenant general and decorated combat veteran of the Vietnam and Korean wars who led the U.S. Military Academy during a turbulent period in the 1970s. During his tenure as superintendent a cheating scandal rocked West Point and despite initial misgivings, he oversaw the admission of the first female cadets. Parkinson’s disease, July 1.
Margaret Brewer, 82, retired brigadier general who in 1978 became the first woman to hold the rank of general in the U.S. Marine Corps. She led the Marines’ public affairs division late in her career. Alzheimer’s, Jan. 2.
Joyce Brothers, 85, a pioneering psychologist whose television shows starting in the 1950s paved the way for an entire genre of programming. Brothers offered advice on psychological issues at a time when such subjects were rarely discussed on TV. She was also a columnist, author, film personality — and game show champion. Cause not given, May 13.
Scott Carpenter, 88, a member of the”Mercury Seven,” the USA’s first group of astronauts. He was the fourth American in space and the second to orbit the Earth. His five-hour, three-orbit journey on May 24, 1962, was marred by a wildly off-course landing that sparked concern that he might have died midflight. Complications from a stroke, Oct. 10.
Andre Cassagnes, 86, French inventor of the Etch A Sketch drawing toy that generations of children drew on, then hook up and started over. No cause given, Jan. 16.
Julius Chambers, 76, attorney who with his partners won cases that shaped civil rights law. The Supreme Court’s ruling in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education required the busing of students to integrate public school. His home and his car were firebombed on separate occasions in 1965, and his office was burned to the ground in 1971. No cause given, Aug. 2.
Paul Crouch, 79, televangelist who built what’s been called the world’s largest Christian broadcasting network. Founded in 1973 by Crouch and his wife, Jan, Trinity Broadcast Network has 84 satellite channels and more than 18,000 television and cable affiliates. Degenerative heart disease, Nov. 30.
George “Bud” Day, 88, Medal of Honor recipient who spent 5½ years as a POW in Vietnam and was Arizona Sen. John McCain’s cellmate. A retired colonel, Day earned more than 70 medals during service in World War II, Korea and Vietnam. was one of the nation’s most highly decorated servicemen since Gen. Douglas MacArthur and a tireless advocate for veterans’ rights. Day received the Medal of Honor for escaping his captors for 10 days after the aircraft he was piloting was shot down over North Vietnam. Long illness, July 27.
Jessie Lopez De La Cruz, 93, longtime leader in the national farmworker movement. Cause not given, Sept. 2.
Cartha D. DeLoach, 92, who in the number three position in the FBI was a confidant to J. Edgar Hoover and an intermediary between Hoover and President Lyndon B. Johnson during a tense political era. In a 25-yar career he also headed FBI investigations of the Ku Klux Klan during the 1960s. Cause not given, March 13.
Billie Sol Estes, 88, flamboyant Texas huckster who became one of the most notorious men in America in 1962 when he was accused of looting a federal crop subsidy program. He was convicted and spent several years in prison. His name was synonymous with Texas-sized schemes, greed and corruption. Cause not given, May 14.
Leonard Garment, 89, lawyer who was a friend and adviser to President Richard Nixon as the Watergate scandal unfolded and who urged him not to destroy tapes of his conversations. The tapes played a major role in the erosion of Nixon’s public support and led to Nixon’s his resignation. Short illness, July 13.
Thomas Griffin, 96, major who navigated a B-25 bomber in the daring air raid on Japan led by Lt. Col. James Doolittle in 1942. Sixteen B-52s were launched from the U.S.S. Hornet and bombed Tokyo in retaliation for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Cause not given, Feb. 26.
Marcella Hazan, 89, Italian-born author of multiple cookbooks who taught generations of Americans how to create simple, fresh Italian food. She was best known for her six cookbooks, written by her in Italian and translated into English by Victor, her husband of 57 years. The recipes were traditional, tasty and sparse — her famous tomato sauce contained only tomatoes, onion, butter and salt — and mirrored the tastes of her home country. Cause not given, Sept. 29.
Edward “Babe” Heffron, 90, whose World War II service as a member of famed Easy Company, a unit of the 101st Airborne Division, was recounted in the book and TV miniseries Band of Brothers. Cause not given, Dec. 1.
James A. Hood, 70, one of two black students whose effort to enroll at the University of Alabama in June 1963 led to Gov. George Wallace’s segregationist “stand in the schoolhouse door.” He later forged an unlikely friendship with the former governor. Cause not given, Jan. 17.
Dean Jeffries, 80,celebrated car customizer who painted James Dean’s Porsche and made the Monkeemobile for The Monkees TV show. In his sleep, May 4.
David C. Jones, 92, retired Air Force general who helped set in motion a far-reaching reorganization of the U.S. military command while chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. His recommendations helped strengthen the chairman’s role while curbing service rivalries. He previously was Air Force chief of staff. Parkinson’s disease, Aug. 10.
Frank B. Kelso II, 79, admiral who retired under pressure as chief of naval operations in 1994 in the aftermath of rampant sexual misconduct by Navy officers at an aviation convention known as Tailhook. He oversaw capture of terrorists who hijacked the cruise ship Achille Lauro, led air strikes against Col. Muammar Qaddafi’s Libya in 1986 and directed U.S. naval operations during the 1990-91 Gulf War. Injuries from a fall, June 23.
Chris Kyle,38, former Navy SEAL sniper who wrote a best-seller graphically chronicling his life as the military’s most prolific marksman. He had 160 confirmed kills in four tours in Iraq. Upon retirement He co-founded Craft International, a security company which provides training to military, police, corporate and civilian clients, and Fitco Cares, a foundation he helped establish for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Shot to death, Feb. 2.
Benjamin Lawless, 88, who brought a galvanizing showmanship to museum exhibitions at the Smithsonian Institution, Elvis Presley’s Graceland, the National Civil Rights Museum and the Jurassic Park Discovery Center. Lawless helped conceive the National Museum of History and Technology, now the National Museum of American History, which opened in 1964 in Washington to display the Smithsonian’s hodgepodge of social, cultural, scientific and technological memorabilia. Heart ailment, Aug. 2.
Willie Louis, 76, black teenage farm worker who heard the screams of lynching victim Emmett Till in 1955 and agreed to testify in court against his white assailants. An all-white jury acquitted the men and Louis fled to Chicago where he lived in obscurity. Cause not given, July 18.
Jeanne Manford, 92, the mother whose love for a gay son prompted her to found an international organization for parents and relatives of gay men and lesbians, PFLAG for short. Manford became an outspoken gay rights advocate in 1972 after her son, Monty, was beaten by police during a demonstration in New York City. Cause not given, Jan. 8.
Ronald L. Motley, 68, crusading plaintiff’s lawyer who in the 1990s pioneered the development of mass-tort litigation. He took on the asbestos industry before targeting tobacco companies and achieving a landmark victory for the anti-smoking movement that brought the biggest civil settlement in U.S. history. Organ failure, Aug. 22.
James Muri, 93, World War II pilot who saved his crippled B-26 bomber and crew by buzzing the flight deck of the Japanese aircraft carrier Akagi during the Battle of Midway. More than 500 bulet holes were counted in the plane’s fuselage afterward and Muri and his crew earned the Distinguished Service Cross. Natural causes, Feb. 1.
Demetrius Newton, 85, civil rights attorney who represented icons like Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. before becoming the first black person to serve as speaker pro tem of the Alabama House in 1998. Long illness, Sept. 11.
Augusto Odone, 80, former World Bank economist who defied skeptical scientists to invent a treatment, derived from cooking oils, to try to save the life of his young terminally ill son, wasting away from a neurological disease. His son Lorenzo astonished doctors by surviving for decades. His efforts were depicted in the 1992 film Lorenzo’s Oil. Organ failure, Oct. 23.
Steuart L. Pittman, 93, chief of President John F. Kennedy’s civil defense program, he marshaled a national effort at the height of the Cold War to organize the massive — and now largely forgotten — system of nuclear fallout shelters across the country. Stroke, Feb. 10.
Charles Pollock, 83, furniture designer who created a chair that became ubiquitous in offices in the mid-20th century and is still in production. His Pollock Executive Chairin 1963 for the Knoll company. The chair, set on rolling wheels, had was visually distinctive with tufted upholstery and an aluminum band around its edges. Died in a fire, Aug. 20.
Lilly Pulitzer, 81, who’s tropical print dresses became a 1960s rage after first lady Jacqueline Kennedy, who attended boarding school with Pulitzer, wore one of the sleeveless shifts in a Life magazine photo spread. Cause not given, April 7.
Fred F. Scherer, 98, painter who from 1934 to 1972 created vivid dioramas of animals and birds in natural scenes for the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. Natural causes, Nov. 25.
Rex Scouten, 88, former chief usher of the White House whose 48-year career began as a Secret Service agent with the Trumans and ended with the Clintons as curator of the building’s art and furnishings. Complications from hip surgery, Feb. 20.
James van Sweden, 78, landscape architect who in the 1970s successfully reinvented the look and character of the American garden. He promoted a radically different approach to landscape design — replacing staid evergreen hedging, bedding annuals and groomed lawns with favored broad sweeps of long, flowering perennials and ornamental grasses. Parkinson’s disease, Sept. 20.
Curtis Tarr, 88, appointed head of the Selective Service System in 1970, he oversaw the lottery for the draft during the last years of the Vietnam War. The lottery took decisions over who would be drafted away from local draft boards. Pneumonia, June 21.
Charlie Trotter, 54, Chicago-based chef who changed the way Americans viewed fine dining and whose name was synonymous with cutting-edge cuisine. His namesake restaurant put Chicago at the vanguard of the food world. He earned 10 James Beard Awards, wrote 10 cookbooks and in 1999 hosted his own public television series, The Kitchen Sessions with Charlie Trotter. Stroke, Nov. 5.
James B. Vaught, 86, Army general who was commander of the Carter administration’s disastrous April 1980 mission aimed at freeing more than 50 American hostages held in Iran. The failed mission that left eight servicemen dead underscored coordination problems between U.S. military branches. Drowning, Sept. 20.
Michael Moses Ward, 41, one of two survivors of the 1985 bombing of the militant group MOVE in Philadelphia. Ward was 13 and known as Birdie Africa when Philadelphia police, trying to dislodge MOVE from its fortified inner-city compound, dropped explosives on the roof of the MOVE compound, igniting a fire that consumed 61 row homes. Drowning, Sept. 20.
Essie Mae Washington-Williams, 87, who revealed after the 2003 death of segregationist Sen. Strom Thurmond that she was his mixed-race daughter. Her mother was a servant for Thurmond’s parents in the 1920s.They both kept secret her parentage — her mother was a Thurmond family maid — for more than 70 years. Cause not given, Feb. 3.
Albert Wheelon, 84, former Hughes Aircraft chairman who played a key role in developing the first spy satellite as Wheelon was the CIA’s science and technology director when he helped guide development of the photo reconnaissance satellite in the early 1960s. Cancer, Sept. 27.
John Wilpers, 93, last known surviving member of a team of Army intelligence officers who captured the former Japanese prime minister Hideki Tojo after World War II. Tojo shot himself in a suicide attempt but the team got medical attention to keep him alive so he could be tried and executed for war crimes. Cause not given, Feb. 28.
Bill Allain, 85, Democrat who was governor of Mississippi from 1984-88 and appointed many women and minorities to government jobs and strengthened the executive branch by removing lawmakers from state boards. No cause given, Dec. 2.
Otis R. Bowen, 95, small-town family doctor who overhauled Indiana’s tax system as governor and was the first Indiana governor re-elected since the mid-1800s. He later helped promote safe sex practices in the early years of AIDS as director of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under President Reagan. Cause not given, May 3.
Harry F. Byrd Jr., 98, Democrat-turned-independent U.S. senator who began his career as a staunch segregationist and preached fiscal restraint in Washington long before it became fashionable. His 1970 re-election was only the second time an independent won a U.S. Senate seat. Byrd served 17 years in the U.S. Senate, replacing his powerful father, Harry Flood Byrd, a U.S. senator from 1933-65. Cause not given, July 30.
Argeo Paul Cellucci, 65, governor of Massachusetts from 1997 to 2001 before becoming U.S. ambassador to Canada. Complications from ALS, June 6.
William P. Clark, 81, who rose from campaign volunteer to one of President Ronald Reagan’s most trusted advisers. Clark was national security adviser and later Interior secretary. and he was a key player in Reagan’s philosophy of “peace through strength.” Parkinson’s disease, Aug. 10.
Tom Foley, 84, Democrat who as House speaker was known for his ability to forge consensus but who lost his seat in Congress in the Republican takeover of 1994. Foley, who served in the House for 30 years, was later U.S. ambassador to Japan. Complications from a stroke, Oct. 18.
John J. Gilligan, 92, liberal Democrat who was a former governor of Ohio and U.S. representative. In 1971, he persuaded legislators to create Ohio’s first income tax. The move was his most lasting accomplishment and the undoing of his political career. His daughter, Kathleen Sebelius, is the U.S. Health and Human Services secretary. No cause given, Aug. 26.
William H. Gray III, 71, who rose to influential positions in Congress and was the first African American to become House majority whip in the 20th century. He authored legislation implementing economic sanctions against South Africa. In 1991, he surprised colleagues by resigning to run the United Negro College Fund, for which a biography on his company website says he raised more than $2.3 billion for minority institutions. In 1994, President Clinton tapped him as a temporary special adviser on Haiti. Sudden illness, July 1.
Ed Koch, 88, combative New York mayor who helped rescue the city from near-financial ruin during three terms in which he embodied Big Apple chutzpah. The larger-than-life Koch, who breezed through the city flashing his signature thumbs-up, won a national reputation with his feisty style. He also served four terms in Congress. Cause not given, Feb. 1.
Bert Lance, 82, Georgia banker and close ally of former President Carter who served as his first budget director before departing in September 1977 amid a high-profile investigation of his former bank’s lending practices. Cause not given, Aug. 15.
Frank Lautenberg, 89, longtime liberal Democratic senator from New Jersey who wrote some of the nation’s most sweeping health and safety laws. He was the oldest U.S. senator at the time of his death. Pneumonia, June 3.
William W. Scranton, 96, a progressive Republican and former Pennsylvania governor, presidential candidate and ambassador to the United Nations. Scranton was a progressive Republican from the northeastern Pennsylvania city named after his wealthy family. Scranton also chaired the presidential panel that investigated deaths during campus protests at Kent State University and Jackson State College in 1970. He was elected to Congress in 1960 and was elected as Pennsylvania’s 38th governor in 1962. Cerebral hemorrhage, July 28.
E. Clay Shaw Jr., 74, Republican congressman from Florida who was one of the architects of the nation’s landmark welfare overhaul in 1996. The revised law added work requirements for welfare recipients and was seen as a bipartisan achievement for President Clinon and the GOP-led Congress. Lung cancer, Sept. 10.
Ike Skelton, 81, former Democratic representative from Missouri, he built a reputation as a military expert and social conservative during 34 years in Congress. He chaired the House Armed Services Committee at the time of his 2010 loss to a tea party conservative. Cause not given, Oct. 27.
Barbara Vucanovich, 91, first woman to represent Nevada in Congress and went on to serve the sprawling 2nd Congressional District for 14 years. Among the bills she authored was the repeal of the 55 mph speed limit. Short illness, June 9.
Harold Agnew, 92, Los Alamos National Laboratory Director, 1970-79, who worked on the Manhattan Project and led the effort to train the first group of international atomic inspectors. He is credited with developing “fail-safe” methods for nuclear weapons that are still used today. Lymphocytic leukemia, Sept. 29.
Doug Engelbart, 88, visionary who invented the computer mouse and developed other technological innovations that has transformed the way people work, play and communicate. Kidney failure, July 2.
Donald A. Glaser, 86, who won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1960 for inventing an ingenious device called (when he was just 25 years old) the bubble chamber to trace the paths of subatomic particles. Glaser’s chamber generated data that enabled physicists to figure out that most particles of matter, like protons and neutrons, are composed of even smaller particles known as quarks. Cause not given, Feb. 28.
William Glasser, 88, psychiatrist who published more than two dozen books promoting his view that mental health is mostly a matter of choice. His precept found a vast popular audience and influenced teachers, drug counselors and personal therapists. Respiratory failure, Aug. 23.
Donald F. Hornig, who as a young scientist once “babysat” the world’s first atomic bomb and who later became Brown University president and the top science adviser to President Lyndon B. Johnson. Alzheimer’s, Jan. 21.
David Hubel, 87, half of an enduring research team that earned a Nobel Prtize for explaining how the brain assembles information from the eye’s retina to produce detailed visual images of the world. Dr. Hubel and Dr. Torsten Wiesel showed that the brain behaves like a microprocessor, deconstrs ucting and then reassembles details of an image to create a visual scene. They collaborated for more than two decades, becoming, as they made their discoveries, one of the best-known partnerships in science. Kidney failure, Sept. 21.
Thomas E. Hutchinson, 77, University of Virginia engineering professor who invented a device to help disabled people communicate by sending commands to a computer with eye movements. He also created scratch-and-sniff technology by accident. Complications from Dementia, stroke and heart ailments. Sept. 2.
Virginia Johnson, 88, half of the renowned Masters and Johnson research team who oversaw groundbreaking investigations that changed the way human sexuality was perceived. Several illnesses, July 24.
C. Everett Koop, 96, 1980s surgeon general known for frank talk about AIDS and a strong stand against tobacco use. Koop, a pediatric surgeon with a conservative reputation and a distinctive beard, served from 1982 to 1989. Cause not given, Feb. 24.
Hilary Koprowski, 96, Polish-born researcher who developed the first successful oral vaccination for polio. Later, as director of The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia he helped from 1957 to 1991. Under his leadership, the develop a rubella vaccine that helped eradicate the disease in much of the world. Long illness, April 11.
George Magovern, 89, Pittsburgh cardiovascular surgeon who pioneered artificial heart valves. Magovern is best known for co-inventing a sutureless heart valve, which was first used in 1962. Cause not given, Nov. 3.
Stephen Malawista, 79, infectious-diseases researcher who led orchestrated investgative work that in the mid-1970s led to the discovery of Lyme disease, which begins with the transmission of bacteria through the bite of a black-legged tick. Metastatic melanoma, Sept. 18.
Bruce C. Murray, 81, who led the influential Jet Propulsion Laboratory and battled Washington and NASA over money, projects and policy. Alzheimer’s, Aug. 29.
Ruth Patrick, 105, scientist whose research on freshwater ecosystems led to groundbreaking ways to measure pollution in rivers and streams. Patrick is credited with creating an approach that assesses the health of a lake, stream or river by evaluating the quantity, diversity and health of its plants, insects, fish and other organisms — not solely examining the chemistry of the water itself. Her work made her the recipient of dozens of the top U.S. science awards including the National Medal of Science. Cause not given, Sept. 23.
Frederick Sanger, 95, British biochemist who twice (1958 and 1980)won the Nobel Prize in chemistry and was a pioneer of genome sequencing. Sanger was one of just four individuals to have been awarded two Nobel Prizes; the others being Marie Curie, Linus Pauling and John Bardeen. Sanger first won the Nobel Prize in 1958 at the age of 40 for his work on the structure of proteins. He later turned his attention to the sequencing of nucleic acids and developing techniques to determine the exact sequence of the building blocks in DNA. That work led to His second Nobel Prize, awarded jointly with others in 1980 with Stanford University’s Paul Berg and Harvard University’s Walter Gilbert, for their work determining base sequences in nucleic acids. In his sleep, Nov. 19.
Albert D. Wheelon, 84, physicist whose early work on satellites for the CIA in the 1960s helped lay the groundwork for a vast American arsenal of aerial spying machines. Cancer, Sept. 26.
Walt Bellamy, 74, Basketball Hall of Fame center who was NBA rookie of the year in 1962 and averaged 20.1 points and 13.7 rebounds in 14 NBA seasons. The former Indiana University star won an Olympic gold medal in 1960 and was NBA rookie of the year in 1961-62. No cause given, Nov. 2.
Sergei Belov, 69, Soviet basketball great who scored 20 points as his team beat the United States in the epic 1972 Olympic final in Munich. He was widely considered one of the best non-American players of his generation. No cause given, Oct. 2.
Jerry Buss, 80, owner of the Los Angeles Lakers. He bought the team in 1979 and turned it into the NBA’s glamour franchise, winners of 10 championships, by spending heavily for marquee players. He also owned the Los Angeles Kings hockey team and the Forum sports arena. Cancer, Feb. 18.
Todd Christensen, 57, former Raiders tight end and five-time Pro Bowl selection. In 1983, he had 92 catches, setting the NFL record at the time for tight ends. He broke that record three seasons later with 95 catches. Complications during liver transplant surgery, Nov. 12.
Lavonne “Pepper” Paire Davis, 88, star of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League in the 1940s and an inspiration for the central character played by Geena Davis in the movie A League of Their Own. Natural causes, Feb. 2.
Joe Dean, 83, former LSU basketball star who was inducted into the National collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame and later was LSU’s athletic director for 14 years. As an analyst from 1969 to 1987 on SEC basketball broadcasts he coined the phrase “string music, to describe the sound of a basketball swishing through the net. Cause not given, Nov. 16.
Paul Dietzel, 89, football coach who led the LSU Tigers to their first football national championship, in 1958. He left to coach Army and South Carolina before returning as LSU athletics director from 1978-82. Brief illness, Sept. 24.
Ray Grebey, 85, who led Major League Baseball labor negotiations during the tumultuous 50-day strike that split the 1981 season. Stomach cancer, Aug. 28.
L.C. Greenwood, 67, former Steelers defensive end from 1969-81 and a member of the famed 1970s Steel Curtain defense. He earned four Super Bowl rings and was selected to the Pro Bowl six times. Kidney failure, Sept. 28.
Emile Griffith, 75, elegant boxer with a quick jab whose brilliant career was overshadowed by the fatal beating he gave Benny “The Kid” Paret in a televised 1962 welterweight title bout after Paret mocked him. The outcome darkened the world of boxing, even prompted some TV stations to stop showing live fights. Pugilistic dementia, July 23.
Art Donovan, 89, NFL lineman for the Baltimore Colts whose hilarious stories about his football career kept him popular long after his retirement and his 1968 election to the Hall of Fame. Cause not given, Aug. 4.
Don James, 80, former University of Washington football coach who led the Huskies to a perfect season and a share of the national championship in 1991. He left in 1993 to protest what he felt were unfair sanctions levied against the team by the Pacific-10 conference. Pancreatic cancer, Oct. 20.
Dick Kazmaier, 82, Princeton halfback who was the last Ivy League player to win the Heisman Trophy, in 1951. He rejected a career in the NFL, saying he could make more money in business. He was chairman of the President’s Council on Physical Fitness under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. Heart and lung disease, Aug. 1.
Bob Kurland, 88, Hall of Fame basketball big man who led Oklahoma A&M to consecutive NCAA championships in the 1940s, then starred for two gold-medal-winning U.S. Olympic teams. Kurland is credited with giving national exposure to the slam dunk and also was a chief target of the goaltending rule adopted in 1944 and still in effect. Cause not given, Sept. 29.
Don Meineke, 82,University of Dayton basketball hero and the first NBA rookie of the year, in 1953. Long illness, Sept. 3.
Caleb Moore, 25, snowmobile freestyler injured when his 450-pound machine landed on him during the Winter X Games competition in Aspen. Brain injury, Jan. 31.
Stan Musial, 92, one of baseball’s greatest hitters and a Hall of Famer with the St. Louis Cardinals for more than two decades. Stan the Man won seven National League batting titles, was a three-time MVP and helped the Cardinals capture three World Series championships in the 1940s. He retired in 1963 with a then-National League record 3,630 hits, a .331 average and 475 home runs. Cause not given, Jan. 19.
Ken Norton, 70, heavyweight champion who in 1973 beat Muhammad Ali and broke his jaw but three years later lost a rematch to Ali at Yankee Stadium in a controversial decision. He was the only heavyweight champion never to win the title in the ring. Cause not given, Sept. 18.
Andy Pafko, 92, four-time All-Star who played on the last Chicago Cubs team to reach the World Series, in 1945, and was the famously forlorn outfielder who watched Bobby Thomson’s “Shot Heard ‘Round the World” sail over the left-field wall during the 1951 National League playoff. Alzheimer’s disease, Oct. 8.
Ace Parker, 101, star running back in the NFL who was the oldest living member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame at the time of his death. He could do just about everything on a football field in the days of leather helmets and the single wing formation. Cause not given, Nov. 5.
Bum Phillips, 90, folksy Texas football icon who coached the Houston Oilers during their Luv Ya Blue heyday and later led the New Orleans Saints. Cause not given, Oct. 18.
Oscar “Ossie” Schectman, 94, former New York Knicks guard who scored on a layup for the first basket in NBA history in 1946. Respiratory failure, July 30.
George Scott, 69, massive first baseman for the Boston Red Sox and others. Known as Boomer for his slugging prowess, he also had defensive skills, collecting eight Gold Glove awards during 14 Major League seasons. Cause not given, July 28.
Bill Sharman, 87, Hall of Famer who won four NBA titles as a player for the Celtics and then another as a coach for the Los Angeles Lakers in 1972. He was widely considered one of the greatest outside shooters of his era and is still ranked as one of the NBA’s best free-throw shooters. Cause not given, Oct. 25.
Tommy Smith, 75, jockey who guided the bay thoroughbred Jay Trump to victory in the British Grand National in 1965, the first time an American horse and rider won the prestigious steeplechase. Complications from a fall from a horse in 2001, March 5.
James Street, 65, former University of Texas quarterback who ran the Wishbone offense to a 1969 national championship with a crucial 15-14 win over Arkansas in a matchup billed as the “Game of the Century.” Cause not given, Sept. 30.
Pat Summerall, 82, NFL kicker-turned-play-by-play broadcaster who was a regular on NFL telecasts for CBS and Fox from the 1960s into the 2000s. Cardiac arrest, April 16.
Bert Trautmann, 89, former German WWII prisoner of war who became one of the greatest Manchester City goalkeepers of all time. He cemented his legendary status when he continued to play during the 1956 FA Cup final despite breaking his neck in a challenge with a Birmingham City striker. Cause not given, July 19.
Ken Venturi, 82, who overcame dehydration to win the 1964 U.S. Open and spent 35 years in the booth analyzing golf for CBS Sports. He rallied over the final 36 holes, played in one day in stifling heat, to win the 1964 U.S. Open. He overcame a severe stutter as a youth to become a familiar voice to millions watching golf tournaments. Intestinal infection, May 17.
Earl Weaver, 82, notoriously fiery Hall of Fame manager of the Baltimore Orioles, whom he guided to five 100-win seasons and , six AL East titles and four AL pennants, winning the World Series in 1970. His .583 winning percentage ranks fifth among managers who served 10 or more seasons in the 20th century. Apparent heart attack, Jan. 19.
Michael Weiner, 51, plain-speaking, labor lawyer who became head of the powerful baseball players’ union four years ago in 2009 and smoothed its perennially contentious relationship with management. Brain tumor, Nov. 20.
Hugo Chávez, 58, Venezuelan president for 14 years and socialist leader who assailed U.S. influence in Latin America in his campaign against capitalism and democratic freedoms. Chávez dismantled Venezuela’s democratic political system, rewrote the constitution in his favor, clamped down on freedom of expression and tried to spread his version of socialism. Cancer, March 4.
Glafcos Clerides, 94, former president of Cyprus who guided his nation into European Union membership and dedicated most of his 50 years in politics to trying to reunify the ethnically split island. Cause not given, Nov. 14.
Vo Nguyen Giap, 102, relentless and charismatic North Vietnamese general who fought Japanese occupiers and whose campaigns drove both France and the United States out of Vietnam. In later years he supported economic reform and closer relations with the United States Cause not given, Oct. 4.
David Hartman, 81, rabbi who was one of the world’s leading Jewish philosophers and who promoted both Jewish pluralism and interfaith dialogue. He is praised for having developed a unique Jewish philosophy which positioned man at the center of Judaism, opening the door to a more tolerant approach that took personal choice and experience into greater account. Hartman’s line of thought placing man in a dialogue with God, rather than as an obedient, unquestioning worshipper. He promoted thoughtful criticism and interpretation of Jewish texts and laws Long illness, Feb. 10.
Mikhail T. Kalashnikov, 94, arms designer credited by the Soviet Union with creating the AK-47, one of the the most abundant firearms ever made. The weapons were known for their reliability and were recognizable by their curved magazines. Cause not given, Dec. 23
Nelson Mandela, 95, whose struggle against apartheid, South Africa’s former system of racial segregation and discrimination, made him a global symbol for human rights and earned him the Nobel Peace Prize. Natural causes, Dec. 5.
Tadeusz Mazowiecki, 86, pro-democracy writer and an intellectual who became a moving force in Poland in 1980 by joining ranks with striking workers at the Gdansk shipyard who founded the Solidarity movement. In 1989 he became Poland’s first post-communist prime minister. Cause not given, Oct. 27.
Rochus Misch, 96, German SS sergeant who was Adolf Hitler’s devoted bodyguard for most of World War II and the last remaining witness to the Nazi leader’s final hours in his Berlin bunker. Cause not given, Sept. 5.
Ottavio Missoni, 92, patriarch of the Missoni fashion house, whose iconic zigzag-patterned knitwear helped popularize Italian ready-to-wear fashions and turn Milan into a fashion mecca. No cause given, May 9.
Bruce Reynolds, 81, and Ronnie Biggs, 84, criminals renowned for their roles in chief architect of one of 20th-century one of Britain’s most notorious crimes, the caper known as the Great Train Robbery in 1963. No cause given for either. Reynolds, chief architect of the robbery, died Feb. 28. Biggs, who broke out of prison and lived in Brazil for decades before giving himself up in 2001, died Dec. 18.
Manfred Rommel, 84, mayor of Stuttgart, Germany, from 1975-996 and only son of Germany’s most famous World War II military commander, Field Marshall Erwin Rommel, the “Desert Fox.” Cause not given, Nov. 6.
Margaret Thatcher, 87, “Iron Lady” of British politics and the first woman to be prime minister. She restored her country’s confidence and pride — but alienated many voters, from coal miners to gay people, with her uncompromising policies. Her achievements ranged from privatization of cumbersome state-run industries to reclaiming the Falkland Islands after Argentina’s 1982 invasion. Stroke, April 16.
Ovadia Yosef, 93, rabbi who was a religious scholar and spiritual leader of Israel’s Sephardic Jews. He transformed his downtrodden community of immigrants from North Africa and Arab nations and their descendants into a powerful force in Israeli politicsthrough the Shas party. Multiple ailments, Oct. 7.
Masao Yoshida, 58, nuclear engineer who earned praise for efforts to contain a nuclear disaster at the the Fukushima Daiichi power plant as multiple reactors spiraled out of control after a 2011 tsunami. He later acknowledged he had underestimated the need for tsunami protection walls for the facility. Cancer, July 9.
Zhuang Zedong, 72, three-time world champion in table tennis he became a key figure in 1971’s groundbreaking “pingpong diplomacy” between China and the U.S. by presenting a gift to a U.S. player at the world championships. Cancer, Feb. 10.
Cory Monteith as Finn Hudson in season three of the Fox television show “Glee” poses for a photograph Aug. 30, 2011. Monteith, 31, died of a drug overdose July 13.(Photo: Danielle Levitt, FOX)
Conrad Bain, 89, stage and film actor who became a TV star in middle age as the kindly white adoptive father of two young African-American brothers in the 1970s sitcom Diff’rent Strokes. He also had a role in Maude on CBS from 1972-78. Natural causes, Jan. 14.
Karen Black, 74, actress best known for her roles in film classics such as Easy Rider, Five Easy Pieces and Nashville. Black appeared in more than 100 films. Her breakthrough came in 1969’s Easy Rider, in which she played a prostitute who takes LSD with Dennis Hopper and Peter Fonda. Cancer, Aug. 8.
Eileen Brennan, 80, who went from musical comedy on Broadway to memorable characters in such films as Private Benjamin and Clue. Bladder cancer, July 28.
Richard Briers, 79, British actor who who was an avuncular comic presence on TV and movie screens for decades on such shows as The Good Life and Monarch of the Glen. Briers starred in the 1970s sitcom “The Good Life” as Tom Good, a man who decides to quit the urban rat race for a life of self-sufficiency in suburbia. Emphysema, Feb. 17.
Roger Ebert, 70, film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times since 1967 who teamed up on television with Gene Siskel, and later Richard Roeper, to create a must-see format for criticism with its trademark thumbs up or down reviews. “I’ll see you at the movies,” was his familiar signoff. Cancer, April 4.
Dennis Farina, 69, a former Chicago cop-turned-character actor who was often cast as either a cop or a hood in a long career on TV and in films. Blood clot, July 22.
Joan Fontaine, 96, Academy Award-winning actress who found stardom playing naive wives in Alfred Hitchcock’s Suspicion and Rebecca. She also was featured in films by Billy Wilder, Fritz Lang and Nicholas Ray. She was the sister of fellow Oscar winner Olivia de Havilland. In her sleep, Dec. 15.
Bryan Forbes, 86, British film director whose work includes the original 1970s horror classic The Stepford Wives. Cause not given, May 8.
Bonnie Franklin, 69, redheaded actress known whom millions came to identify with for her role as divorced mom Ann Romano on the long-running sitcom One Day at a Time. On stage, Franklin was in the original Broadway production of Applause, for which she received a 1970 Tony Award nomination. Pancreatic cancer, March 1.
Stuart Freeborn, 98, pioneering movie makeup artist behind creatures such as Yoda and Chewbacca in the Star Wars films. Freeborn’s six-decade career led him to work on many classics, including Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey. Multiple ailments, Feb. 5.
Annette Funicello, child star who was a cute-as-a-button Mouseketeer on The Mickey Mouse Club in the 1950s. She teamed up with Frankie Avalon during the ’60s in a string of fun-in-the-sun movies such as Beach Blanket Bingo and How to Stuff a Wild Bikini. She endeared herself to baby boomers again when she announced in 1992 that she had multiple sclerosis and began grappling with the effects with remarkably good cheer and faith. Multiple sclerosis, April 14.
James Gandolfini, 51, beefy, balding actor who personified the Mafia for millions as New Jersey family patriarch Tony Soprano in HBO’s acclaimed “The Sopranos.” He won three Emmy Awards for his performance. He also had dozens of film roles, including as CIA Director Leon Panetta in last year’s “Zero Dark Thirty.” Heart attack, June 19.
Alexei German, 74, Russian film director best known for his works, such as My Friend Ivan Lapshin, offering a bitter view of life in the Soviet Union under dictator Josef Stalin. German came to prominence internationally for his 1983 production “My Friend Ivan Lapshin” about a police investigator battling a criminal gang. Censors blocked the film’s release for two years because of its realistic depiction of Soviet life in the wake of the Stalinist terror of the late 1930s.Heart failure, Feb. 21.
Richard Griffiths, 65, one of the great British stage actors of his generation, but for millions of movie fans he was simply grumpy Uncle Vernon from the Harry Potter movies. Griffiths won a Tony Award for The History Boys and appeared in dozens of movies and TV shows. Following heart surgery, March 28.
Julie Harris, 87, one of American theater’s most prolific and affecting artists and winner of five Tonys. Harris received the Tony Award for best actress in a play five times and also garnered a special lifetime-achievement Tony in 2005. The deceptively fragile-looking actress was responsible for some of the most celebrated stage performances of the mid- to late 20th century and also appeared on screen and TV. Congestive heart failure, Aug. 24.
Ray Harryhausen, 92, Hollywood special-effects pioneer known for combining stop-motion model animation with live actors in such films as Jason and the Argonauts. He invented the sword-wielding skeletons of Jason and the Argonauts, the great ape of Mighty Joe Young and the dinosaurs opposite Raquel Welch in One Million Years B.C. Cause not given, May 7.
Jane Kean, 90, diverse performer who got her start in musical theater but was best known for playing Trixie alongside Jackie Gleason on a television revival of The Honeymooners in the 1960s. Hemorrhagic stroke, Nov. 26.
Saul Landau, 77, prolific, award-winning documentary filmmaker who traveled the world profiling political leaders like Cuba’s Fidel Castro and Chile’s Salvador Allende. In his more than 40 films he used his camera to draw attention to war, poverty and racism. Bladder cancer, Sept. 9.
Tom Laughlin, 82, actor-writer-director known for his production and marketing of the counterculture favorite, Billy Jack. The film was released in 1971 after a long struggle by Laughlin to gain control of the low-budget, self-financed movie, a model for guerrilla filmmaking. Pneumonia, Dec. 12.
A. C. Lyles, 95, who rose from the mailroom to producer at Paramount Pictures and created a string of profitable low-budget westerns. Cause not given, Sept. 27.
Cory Monteith, 31, who played an upbeat and outgoing young student and singing coach on the hit Fox musical comedy series Glee. Drug overdose, July 13.
Lou Myers, 76, actor best known for his role as ornery restaurant owner Mr. Gaines on the TV series A Different World. His TV credits included NYPD Blue, E.R. and The Cosby Show. Cause not given, Feb. 19.
Peter O’Toole, 81, best known for playing British officer T.E. Lawrence in 1962’s “Lawrence of Arabia.” Other roles included Henry II in 1968’s “The Lion in Winter” and the title role in 1969’s “Goodbye, Mr. Chips.” An eight-time Academy Award nominee, he got a lifetime achievement Oscar in 2003 and was an unrepentant bad boy to the end. Long illness, Dec. 14.
Eleanor Parker, 91, actress who was nominated for Academy Awards three times in the 1950s for her portrayals of strong-willed women and later played a scheming baroness in The Sound of Music. Complications from pneumonia, Dec. 9.
Harry Reems, 65, male star of the 1972 cultural phenomenon Deep Throat, which brought pornography to mainstream audiences. Multiple health issues, March 19.
Dale Robertson, 89, Oklahoma native who became a star of movie and television Westerns, such as Death Valley Days, during the genre’s heyday and later appeared in night-time soap operas Dallas and Dynasty. Brief illness, Feb. 26.
Richard Sarafian, 83, an influential film director whose 1971 countercultural car-chase thriller Vanishing Point brought him a decades-long cult following. Sarafian worked primarily in television in his early career, directing episodes of 60s shows like “Gunsmoke,” ”I Spy,” and “77 Sunset Strip.” Pneumonia, Sept. 18.
Toshi Seeger, 91, a driving force and partner in a variety of musical and environmental endeavors with her husband, folk singer Pete Seeger. Seeger credited his wife with figuring out how to turn his artistic concepts into commercial successes. Cause not given, July 9.
Mel Smith, 60, actor and writer who was a major force in British comedy growing out of the evening news parody Not the Nine O’Clock News. Heart attack, July 19.
Jean Stapleton, 90, stage-trained character actress who played Archie Bunker’s far better half, the sweetly naive Edith, in TV’s groundbreaking 1970s comedy All in the Family. Natural causes, May 31.
Patsy Swayze, 86, choreographer and dance instructor and the mother of the late actor Patrick Swayze. Her students included Tommy Tune and Debbie Allen. No cause given, Sept. 16.
Gilbert Taylor, 99, influential Star Wars cinematographer who also worked on a number of such landmark films as Dr. Strangelove and A Hard Day’s Night, alongside some of the world’s most famous directors. Cause not given, Aug. 23.
Petro Vlahos, 96, two-time Academy Award winner whose blue- and green-screen special effects technique in films like Mary Poppins and Ben Hur made modern blockbusters possible. No cause given, Feb. 10.
Paul Walker, 40, star of the Fast & Furious street-racing movie series. Car accident, Nov. 30.
Esther Williams, 91, swimming champion-turned-actress who was the star of glittering aquatic musicals of the 1940s and 1950s. Williams became one of Hollywood’s biggest moneymakers, appearing in spectacular swimsuit numbers in films such as “Dangerous When Wet” that capitalized on her wholesome beauty and perfect figure. In her sleep, June 6.
Jonathan Winters, 87, cherubic-faced comic known for his breakneck improvisations and misfit characters. He was a pioneer of improvisational standup, using facial contortions and sound effects to carry his jokes. Natural causes, April 11.
Lee Thompson Young, 29, who began his acting career as the teenage star of the Disney Channel’s The Famous Jett Jackson and was featured in the film Friday Night Lights. Self-inflicted gunshot, Aug. 19.
Author and screenwriter Richard Matheson poses for a photograph on May 12, 2000, in France. Matheson, 87, author of numerous books and television shows that blended elements of science fiction, fantasy and horror, died on June 23.(Photo: Xavier Rossi, Gamma-Rapho via Getty Images)
Gary Brandner, 83, novelist whose trilogy ”The Howling” delighted werewolf enthusiasts and inspired a popular film series of the same name. Esophageal cancer, Sept. 22.
A.C. Crispin, 63, science fiction author who wrote more than 20 popular tie-in novels to Star Trek and Star Wars. and helped run the online watchdog Writer Beware that alerted authors to literary scams. Cancer, Sept. 6.
Joseph Frank, 94, whose magisterial, five-volume life of Fyodor Dostoevsky was frequently cited among the greatest of 20th-century literary biographies. Pulmonary failure, Feb. 27.
Seamus Heaney, 74, who in 1995 became Ireland’s first Nobel Prize-winning poet since William Butler Yeats in 1923. Short illness, Aug. 30.
Christopher J. Koch, 81, Australian author whose 1978 novel The Year of Living Dangerously was the basis of the atmospheric, award-winning film about intrigue in Indonesia. Cancer, Sept. 23.
Elmore Leonard, 87, a master of the crime novel who in 2012 became the first crime writer to receive an honorary National Book Award. He churned out more than 40 novels, most reaching best-seller status. Complications of a stroke, Aug. 20.
Doris Lessing, 94, Nobel Prize-winning British author who was an often-polarizing figure. She wrote more than 55 works. She was best known for her 1962 novel The Golden Notebook. Age 88 at the time she earned the Nobel, she is the oldest recipient for literature. Cause not given, Nov. 17.
Richard Matheson, 87, prolific science-fiction and fantasy writer whose I Am Legend and The Shrinking Man were turned into films. His 1954 science-fiction vampire novel I Am Legend inspired three different film adaptations. No cause given, June 23.
Barbara Mertz, 85, best-selling mystery writer who wrote dozens of novels under two pen names, Elizabeth Peters and Barbara Michaels. the group’s top award. Mertz wrote more than 35 mysteries under the name Elizabeth Peters, including her most popular series about a daring Victorian archaeologist named Amelia Peabody. She also wrote 29 suspense novels under the pen name Barbara Michaels. Cause not given, Aug. 8.
Edmund S. Morgan, 97, award-winning historian who illuminated the intellectual world of the Puritans, explored the paradox of freedom and slavery in colonial Virginia and wrote a best-selling biography of Benjamin Franklin. In 2006, the Pulitzer Prize jury awarded him a special citation for his work as a historian over the previous half-century. In 2008, the American Academy of Arts and Letters honored him with a gold medal for lifetime achievement. Cause not given, July 8.
Barbara Park, 66, author of kids’ books about grade-schooler Junie B. Jones. Ovarian cancer, Nov. 15.
Frederik Pohl, 93, author of more than 40 novels who over decades gained a reputation as a literate and sophisticated writer of science fiction. His Gateway earned the 1978 Hugo Award for science fiction writing. Respiratory problems, Sept. 2.
Andre Schiffrin, 78, who was expelled from the corporate publishing world after fostering the likes of Art Spiegelman, Jean-Paul Sartre and Studs Terkel. He founded the nonprofit publisher The New Pressafter he was forced out of Pantheon Books in 1990 over the high-brow imprint’s slender bottom line. Schiffrin argued that corporate control was incompatible with literature and threatened free expression. Pancreatic cancer, Dec. 1.
Journalist Helen Thomas poses for a photograph Aug. 17, 2008. Thomas, the White House correspondent who used her seat in the front row of history to grill nine presidents, died July 20. She was 92.(Photo: Will Hart, HBO)
Alan Abelson, 87, who spent 57 years as a writer, editor and chief columnist for the financial news publication Barron’s. He authored the long-running Up and Down Wall Street column. Heart attack, May 9.
Richard Ben Cramer, 62, Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter who wrote What It Takes, a 1,047-page account of the 1988 presidential election widely hailed as among the finest books about American politics ever published. Cramer was awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1979 for his coverage of the Middle East as a correspondent for The Philadelphia Inquirer. He wrote a best-selling biography of Joe DiMaggio (“Joe DiMaggio: The Hero’s Life,” Lung cancer, Jan. 7.
Mary J. Corey, 49, first woman to serve as top editor of The Baltimore Sun, in 2010. Corey was named senior vice president and director of content at the Tribune-owned paper in 2010, overseeing all print and digital news operations. Breast cancer, Feb. 26.
Judith Glassman Daniels, 74, first woman to serve as top editor of Life magazine and creator of Savvy, an early magazine for professional women. Daniels served in senior editing positions at The Village Voice, New York magazine, Time Inc. and Conde Nast over a career that spanned 35 years Stomach cancer, Sept. 1.
Arthur C. Danto, 89, provocative and influential philosopher and for 25 years an art critic for The Nation magazine. He championed Andy Warhol and other avant-garde artists and upended the study of art history by declaring that the history of art was over. Heart failure, Oct. 24.
Daniel J. Edelman, 92, founder of one of the world’s top public relations companies and a pioneer in celebrity endorsements and media tours. The firm he started with two people became a global marketing force with more than 4,500 employees in 66 offices worldwide. Heart failure, Jan. 15.
Frank L. Fouce, 85, dynamic force in Spanish-language entertainment, he turned the Million Dollar Theater in Los Angeles into a prestigious venue for those acts. He was co-founder of the firm Spanish International Communications Corp., which operated the first Spanish-language television stations in the United States that became what is today known as Univision. Lymphoma, Sept. 22.
David Frost, 74, British broadcaster best remembered for his post-Watergate interviews with former president Richard Nixon. His career also included stints as a satirist, game show host and political journalist. Heart attack, Aug. 31.
Jack Germond, 85, curmudgeonly chronicler of American politics for a half-century. Germond was a regular panelist on The McLaughlin Group and a frequent commentator on Meet the Press. Germond was renowned for his no-nonsense manner and his cultivation of political sources around the country. Once the Washington Bureau chief for Gannett newspapers, he moved to the Washington Star, where he started a syndicated column with Jules Witcover. After the Star folded, they went to the Baltimore Evening Sun. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Aug. 14.
Bob Gilka, 96, director of photography at National Geographic from 1963 to 1985. He helped establish the publication as one of the premier outlets for photojournalism. He was the magazine’s director of photography from 1963 to 1985. Complications from pneumonia, June 25.
Steve Jones, 57, longtime music critic for USA TODAY, who displayed an impressive mental warehouse of music history, unflappable cool and a devilish witIn an accessible and entertaining voice, he introduced readers to a staggering variety of artists and trends, shedding light on the cultural and artistic significance of everything from Michael Jackson’s tragic odyssey to the Bay Area’s youth-culture hyphy craze. Long illness, Aug. 2.
Herb Kaplow, 86, Washington correspondent who brought an authoritative voice to his reporting for NBC News and ABC News for more than four decades. Kaplow’s resonant voice and craggy face were familiar to generations of viewers of nightly news broadcasts. Stroke, July 27.
Stanley Karnow, 87, award-winning author and journalist who worked on a definitive book and television documentary about the Vietnam War and later won a Pulitzer Prize for a history of the Philippines. Congestive heart failure, Jan. 27.
Balthazar Korab, 86, architect-turned-photographer with a wide-ranging eye whose moody images captured the spirit of midcentury-modern architecture and celebrated its masters.Korab became one of architecture’s most eminent photographers during a career that spanned six decades, he produced evocative images of modernist icons, including Saarinen’s curvaceous TWA Terminal at New York’s John F. Kennedy International Airport and Minoru Yamasaki’s World Trade Center Parkinson’s disease and a stroke, Jan. 15.
Anthony Lewis, 85, two-time Pulitzer winner whose column in The New York Times championed liberal causes for three decades. His acclaimed 1964 book Gideon’s Trumpet told the story of a petty thief whose fight for legal representation led to a landmark Supreme Court decision. Heart and kidney failure, March 25.
Stan Lynde, 81, Western cartoonist and author who created the nationally syndicated “Rick O’Shay” comic strip. The strip began in 1958 and ran for 20 years with an average daily readership of about 15 million people. In 1979, he launched another comic strip, “Latigo,” which ran through 1983. Cancer, Aug. 6.
Allen H. Neuharth, 89, newspaper visionary and former Gannett chairman who founded USA TODAY, helped create a museum dedicated to news and became one of the industry’s most influential and sometimes controversial figures. Newsroom smart and board room savvy, Neuharth was audacious, flamboyant and a self-described “dreamer and schemer.” He used all those talents, and a dose of Midwest charm and common sense, to help build Gannett into one of America’s largest media companies. Injuries from a fall, April 19.
John Palmer, 77, longtime NBC News correspondent frequently who moved easily from war zones to the White House and brought a reassuring voice to news seen on segments , particularly on Today and othe shows in much of the 1980s. Pulmonary fibrosis, Aug. 3.
Eugene Patterson, 89, Pulitzer Prize-winning editor at the Atlanta Constitution from 1960 to 1968. hand columnist. His columns reminded fellow Southern whites of their complicity in racist violence at the height of the civil rights movement. He was editor of the Atlanta Constitution from 1960 to 1968. Cancer, Jan. 12.
Godfrey Sperling Jr., 97, Washington correspondent for the Christian Science Monitor whose weekly on-the-record breakfasts attracted would-be newsmakers for on the record sessions with reporters in the era before the 24-hour news cycle. Known as Budge, he worked for the Christian Science Monitor from 1946 until his retirement as a senior Washington columnist in 2005. No cause given, Sept. 10.
Richard “Dick” Thien, 73, veteran journalist who was chosen by Gannett CEO Al Neuharth in 1981 as one of five prototype editors to develop USA TODAY, the nation’s first general-interest national newspaper. The Associated Press named Thien one of the 12 best editors in the country in 1986. Natural causes, Aug. 23.
Helen Thomas, 92, first women to serve as White House bureau chief for a wire service, UPI in 1974. She covered every president from Kennedy to Obama and was known for her dogged persistence and undaunted determination to get to the facts. Her public hostility toward Israel ultimately ended her career following a 2010 videotape of her saying Israel should “get out of Palestine.” Cause not given, July 20
Lee Thornton, 71, who in 1977 became the first black woman to cover the White House regularly for CBS. She covered the Carter White House, focusing on the first lady, until 1981. She later taught journalism and was an administrator at the University of Maryland. Pancreatic cancer, Sept. 25.
William Watts Biggers, 85, co-creator of the cartoon Underdog, about a meek canine shoeshine boy who turned into a caped superhero to rescue his girlfriend, Sweet Polly Purebred. Underdog debuted on NBC in 1964. Cause not given, Feb. 10.
Lew Wood, 84, journalist who marched with Martin Luther King, covered John F. Kennedy’s assassination and was the third news anchor for NBC’s Today show, in 1975, during a distinguished broadcast career that began with the dawn of television, . Kidney failure, Aug. 21.
Peter Workman, 74, founder of Workman Publishing Co., one of the largest independent publishers of non-fiction trade books and calendars. the firm was known for such best-sellers as What to Expect When You’re Expecting, The Silver Palate Cookbook and the boxed Page-A-Day Calendar. Cancer, April 7.
A 1956 photograph of Eydie Gorme. Gorme, a popular nightclub and television singer who also performed with her husband, Steve Lawrence. Gorme, 84, died at a Las Vegas hospital on Aug. 10.(Photo: AP)
Jewel Akens, 79, pop singer who had a 1965 hit with The Birds and the Bees. Complications from surgery, March 1.
Patty Andrews, 94, lead singer and last surviving member of the Andrews Sisters, a sibling trio who lifted the spirits of the troops during World War II. Among their hits were Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy and Accentuate the Positive. Cause not given, Jan. 30.
Sid Bernstein, 95, promoter who in 1964 made The Beatles the first rock group to play Carnegie Hall in New York just as their fame exploded in the U.S. He also booked their concert at New York’s Shea Stadium. He also booked such acts as diverse as Jimi Hendrix, Judy Garland and the Rolling Stones. He worked with Judy Garland, Duke Ellington and Ray Charles and promoted Dion, Bobby Darin and Chubby Checker. Natural causes, Aug. 21.
Leroy “Sugarfoot” Bonner, 69, frontman for the hit-making funk music band the Ohio Players. Known for their brassy dance music, catchy lyrics and flamboyant outfits, the group topped music charts in the 1970s with hits such as Love Rollercoaster and Fire. Cause not given, Jan. 27.
Donald Byrd, 80, jazz musician who was a leading hard-bop trumpeter of the 1950s and later enjoyed commercial success with hit jazz-funk fusion records such as Black Byrd. Byrd was also a pioneer in jazz education. He was the first person to teach jazz at Rutgers University in New Jersey and started the jazz studies department at Howard University in Washington, D.C. Cause not given, Feb. 4.
JJ Cale, 74, singer-songwriter known as the architect of the Tulsa Sound. He penned a series of top hits including After Midnight and Cocaine, both of which were sung by Eric Clapton. Heart attack, July 26.
“Cowboy” Jack Clement, 82, producer and songwriter who helped birth rock ‘n’ roll and push country music into modern times. His death came months after he learned he would be joining the Country Music Hall of Fame. Clement’s career included stops in Memphis at Sun Records as an engineer for Sam Phillips, where he discovered Jerry Lee Lewis and recorded greats like Carl Perkins and Roy Orbison. He also came through Nashville, where he was a close collaborator of Johnny Cash, Charley Pride and many of his fellow hall of fame members. As a producer, he helped break through the color barrier in country music through his discovery of Charley Pride. Liver cancer, Aug. 8.
Van Cliburn, 78, pianist who at age 23 and at the height of the Cold War took top prize at the International Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow. That earned him a ticker-tape parade in Manhattan, the first and last time a pianist won such an honor. Bone cancer, Feb. 27.
Tom Connors, 77, Canadian country-folk singer Stompin’ whose toe-tapping musical spirit made and fierce patriotism established him as one of Canada’s biggest cultural icons. He was best known for songs Sudbury Saturday Night, Bud the Spud and especially The Hockey Song, a fan favorite played at NHL arenas around North America. Kidney failure, March 6.
George Duke, 67, Grammy-winning jazz keyboardist and producer who fused genres in a long career whose sound incorporated acoustic jazz, electronic jazz, funk, R&B and soul in a 40-year-plus career. Duke appeared on a number of Frank Zappa albums and played in the Don Ellis Orchestra, Cannonball Adderley’s band and with jazz musician Stanley Clarke. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Aug. 5.
Tompall Glaser, 79, country music singer, publisher and studio owner best known for his association with the outlaw movement against record labels. Long illness, Aug. 13.
Eydie Gormé, 84, popular nightclub and television singer as a solo act and as a team with her husband, Steve Lawrence. Gormé had a huge solo hit in 1963 with Blame It on the Bossa Nova. She sang solos and did duets and comedy skits with Lawrence on a local New York TV show, which became NBC’s Tonight Show in 1954, vaulting them to stardom. Cause not given, Aug. 10.
Jim Hall, 83, one of the leading jazz guitarists of the modern era, whose subtle technique, lyrical sound and introspective approach strongly influenced younger proteges. In 2004, he became the first of the modern jazz guitarist to be named a National Endowment for the Arts Jazz Master, the nation’s highest jazz honor. In his sleep, Dec. 10.
Otis “Damon” Harris, 62, member of the Motown group The Temptations from 1971 to 1975. He sang on hits including Papa Was a Rollin’ Stone. Prostate cancer, Feb. 18.
Richie Havens, 72, folk singer who set the tone for the 1969 Woodstock festival with his distinctively rhythmic improvised song Freedom. His big radio hit came with a 1971 remake of The Beatles’ Here Comes the Sun. Heart attack, April 21.
George Jones, 81, Country Music Hall of Famer who was a master of sad country ballads, chief among them his He Stopped Loving Her Today. Bruised by alcohol and drug abuse, which led to a history of no-shows at concerts, he still still was often called the greatest male vocalist in country music history. Cause not given, April 25.
Marilyn King, 82, who spent decades singing with the King Sisters and also worked as a songwriter and actress. King began her singing career at 13, eventually joining her sisters’ quartet, which released more than 150 albums in the 1940s, ’50s and ’60s. Cancer, 82.
Yusef Lateef, 93, Grammy-winning musician and composer who was one of the first to incorporate world music into traditional jazz. He introduced different types of flutes and other woodwind instruments from many countries into his music and is credited with playing world music before it was officially named. Cause not given, Dec. 23.
Alvin Lee, 68, British rock guitarist and founder of the band Ten Years After who burst to stardom with a memorable Woodstock performance. His electrifying solos on his Gibson guitar for the 11-minute performance of I’m Going Home were immortalized in the documentary film about the festival. Complications from surgery, March 6.
Mindy McCready, 37, country singer better known for her personal troubles than her string of late-’90s hits. Self-inflicted gunshot, Feb. 17.
Marian McPartland, 95, U.K.-born jazz pianist who was host of the National Public Radio program Piano Jazz. McPartland recorded more than 50 albums for the Concord Jazz label and played in venues across the U.SIn 2007, the Kennedy Center named McPartland a Living Jazz Legend. Natural causes, Aug. 20.
Shadow Morton, 71, 1960s pop-song writer and producer whose biggest hits, including Leader of the Pack and “Remember (Walking in the Sand),” , has, were made popular by The Shangri-Las. Cancer, Feb. 14.
Alan Myers, 58, drummer from 1976-85 of the band Devo, best known for the 1980 song Whip It. Brain cancer, June 24.
Patti Page, 85, known as The Singin’ Rage, she was a multimillion-selling purveyor of wholesome pop hits such as (How Much Is That) Doggie in the Window? and With My Eyes Wide Open, I’m Dreaming. and Her Tennessee Waltz is among the best-selling tracks in recorded music. Cause not given, Jan. 1.
Reg Presley, 71, lead singer for the Troggs on their rock classic Wild Thing. Lung cancer, Feb. 4.
Ray Price, 87, legendary country music singer and bandleader with over 100 hits, including For the Good Times. Best known for his version of the Kris Kristofferson song For the Good Times, a pop hit in 1970, the velvet-voiced Price was a giant among traditional country performers in the 1950s, ’60s and ’70s. Pancreatic cancer, Dec. 16.
Phil Ramone, 79, engineer, arranger and producer who earned 14 Grammys and was awarded another for lifetime achievement. A pioneer of digital recording, he produced what is regarded as the first major commercial release on compact disc, Billy Joel’s 52nd Street in 1982. Complications from heart surgery, March 30.
Lou Reed, 71, hugely influential songwriter and guitarist who helped shape nearly 50 years of rock music. With the Velvet Underground in the late 1960s, Reed fused street-level urgency with elements of European avant-garde music. As a solo artist from the 1970s into the 2010s, he was as unpredictable as he was influential. Cause not given, Oct. 27.
Bobby Rogers, 73, a founding member of the Motown group The Miracles and a collaborator with Smokey Robinson. He performed on such songs as The Tears of a Clown. Long illness, March 3.
Magic Slim, 75, singer and guitarist acclaimed as a keeper of the flame of electrified Chicago blues. No cause given, Feb. 21.
Cleotha Staples, 78, whose smooth and velvety voice helped set apart the sound of the influential and best-selling gospel group The Staple Singers. Known as Cleedi, she was the eldest member of the group founded by her father and inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1999. Alzheimer’s, Feb. 21.
Rise Stevens, 99, mezzo-soprano opera star who sang with the Metropolitan Opera for more than 20 years in the 1940s and 1950s. Among her greatest roles was the title character in the opera Carmen which she sang for 124 performances. Cause not given, March 20.
Paul Tanner, 95, trombonist with the Glenn Miller Orchestra from 1938 to 1942 who later played an instrument he developed, the Tannerin, on the Beach Boys hit Good Vibrations. He helped develop the electro-theramin, a keyboard-style electronic instrument which he played on the Beach Boys hit. Pneumonia, Feb. 5.
John Tavener, 69, British composer whose career was boosted in 1968 with the help of The Beatles’ Apple records label and who is remembered for the “Song for Athene” — reworked as “Songs of Angels” — performed as Princess Diana’s coffin was carried out of Westminster Abbey. His wistful, elegant setting of William Blake’s poem “The Lamb” (1982) became a staple of Christmas carol services. Cause not given, Nov. 11.